A 279(1378), 366–385 (1964), Dewey, J.M. - 199.247.14.245. shock fronts, or shock waves. Blast shock wave carries energy (an overpressure of 60–80 PSI) and can propagate at very high speeds (approximately 3,000–8,000 m/sec). Detonation physics | Blast wave propagation | Shock wave propagation | The dynamic behavior of materials | Why use a hydrocode? Combust. The media were considered as a wetted foam and modeled as a regular staggered row of lattice parallel fibers immersed in a fluid having a strong density contrast. In addition, it was shown that the two-dimensional flow induced by the shock wave is rapidly converted into three-dimensional turbulent flow. The shock-blast profile is characterized with blast overpressure, positive time duration, and impulse as shock-blast wave parameters (SWPs). This chapter will provide you with a brief introduction to the mathematical description of shock and blast waves and the most common experimental techniques to study shock wave focusing phenomena. Phys. Blast waves always propagate at supersonic velocity and at a sufficiently large distance from the source approach spherical geometry (Kinney and Graham, 1985; Krehl, 2009). [39] used an advanced Navier-Stokes code with a large-eddy simulation technique based on an immersed boundary method to discuss the somewhat geometrical effect of different solid obstacles and matrices arrangement in shock attenuation. aqueous foams, where different experiments are conducted to investigate the mechanical and thermodynamic processes involved in the interaction. The first of these is a shock wave - then follows a slower subsonic (slower than the speed of sound) front, followed by a negative pressure blast wind that sucks back towards the point of the explosion. Don't Panic! Introduction Because of several accidental or intentional events related to di¤erent structures all over the world, engineers are paying now more attention for the architecture of public buildings to provide life safety in the face of explosions. Following this scenario, the energy can be transferred from direct kinetic mode to rotational (baroclinic) energy and then dissipated into molecular effects. The terms Shock wave and Blast wave have synonymous (similar) meaning. Furthermore, a shock wave may be created by a number of different sources (such as any object reaching supersonic speeds), whereas blast waves are created exclusively by the detonation of explosive material. Blast Waves (Shock Wave and High Pressure Phenomena) - Kindle edition by Needham, Charles E.. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. Shock Waves 28(5), 550–557 (1992), Britan, A.B., Ben-Dor, G., Shapiro, H., Liverts, M., Shreiber, I.: Drainage effects on shock wave propagating through aqueous foams. When a high explosive detonates, the increase in pressure is so rapid that the waves move faster than sound, creating a shock wave. Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the . At the free edge, a reflected shock wave is generated and moves away from the target surface while an incident wave diffracts around the edge of the structure. Blast waves can be especially harmful to “air-filled” organs such as lungs or ears. Average Ratio of Specific Heat of Air is 1.05. In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance that moves faster than the local speed of sound in the medium. The reflected blast wave merges with the incident shock wave to form a single wave, known as the Mach Stem. The overpressure at the front of the Mach wave is generally about twice as great as that at the direct blast wave front. In: Proceeding 19th International Symposium Shock Waves, Marseille, France. Roughly half of the contributions are experimental investigations, and the other half is dedicated to numerical simulations. Examples of how to use “blast wave” in a sentence from the Cambridge Dictionary Labs A diagram of the Mach effect. Shock Waves Handbook of Shock Waves 2, pp. Similar approach has been used previously by Sen and Sinkovits [37, 38] for the shock wave and sound wave mitigation in granular columns. Part of Springer Nature. Our shock tube was designed and built to model a freely expanding blast wave as generated by a typical explosion. Shock wave, strong pressure wave in any elastic medium such as air, water, or a solid substance, produced by supersonic aircraft, explosions, lightning, or other phenomena that create violent changes in pressure.Shock waves differ from sound waves in that the wave front, in which compression takes place, is a region of sudden and violent change in stress, density, and temperature. Aluminium foams are an effective example of those materials. Like other types of explosions, a blast wave can also cause damage to things and people by the blast wind, debris, and fires. Shock and blast waves mitigation. Heat Mass Transfer 28(12), 2285–2298 (1985), Sasoh, A., Matsuoka, K., Nakashio, K., Timofeev, E., Takayama, K., Voinovich, P., Saito, T., Hirano, S., Ono, S., Makino, Y.: Attenuation of weak shock along pseudo-perforated walls. Shock Waves 15(6), 437–445 (2006), Levy, A., Ben-Dor, G., Sorek, S.: Numerical investigation of the propagation of shock waves in rigid porous materials: flow field behavior and parametric study. Google Scholar. The wave motion is easily described in the early stages by a simple spherical blast wave. A Physicochem. In the past, most of the shock wave researches dealt with shock phenomena in relatively simple configurations and fluid flow conditions. : The impact of a shock wave on porous compressible foams. Abstract. In the case of a shock wave, the time average velocity of the medium is different on the two sides of the shock wave. PubMed Google Scholar. Springer, Berlin   (2007), Cooper, W.P. Shock wave interaction with solid obstacles, Numerical schlieren picture showing the post-shock flow oscillations due to vortex shedding and baroclinic instabilities downstream of the obstacles. Shock Waves (2013) doi:10.1007/s00193-012-0424-5, Al-Qananwah, A.K., Koplik, J., Andreopoulos, Y.: Shock wave interactions with nano-structured materials: a molecular dynamics approach. Fluids 39, 875–884 (2005), Inoue, O., Imuta, S., Multon, B.E., Takayama, K.: Computational study of shock wave focusing in a log-spiral duct. A Physicochem. But when the blast wave hits a structure at a 90-degree angle, the reflected pressure is extremely strong. Explain Like I'm Five is the best forum and archive on the internet for layperson-friendly explanations. An example of a receding shock wave. Different tests were conducted in sub- and full-scale configurations using three different masses of explosive. Shock Waves 23, 1–4 (2013). Combust. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast, More posts from the explainlikeimfive community. By Yun Chen, Wei Huang and Shlomi Constantini. Shock Waves 13(2), 123–138 (2003), Dewey, J.M. doi:10.1007/s00193-012-0417-4, Del Prete, E., Chinnayya, A., Domergue, L., Hadjadj, A., Hass, J.F. Rev. An example of a shock wave interacting with triangular and cylindrical matrices of obstacles is shown in Figs. Shock Waves 5(3), 183–188 (2005), Rogg, B., Hermann, D., Adomeit, G.: Shock-induced flow in regular arrays of cylinders and packet beds. Thus, a person subjected to a blast wave first experiences a sharp pressure rise due to the passage of the shock front, followed by an exponential decay, and finally a rarefaction wave . In addition, Britan et al. -----Support Blastwave on Patreon. Press J to jump to the feed. Reblog. A blast wave travels faster than the speed of sound and the passage of the shock wave usually lasts only a few milliseconds. that the density behind the shock wave in the blast obeys a power law, with the exponent being a function of time. (Density of Air/Time^2)*(Radius of Blast Wave/Ratio of Specific Heat of Air)^5 This formila is used to calculate shockwave of explosions or even physical attacks that caused a shockwave. : Shock wave interaction with porous plates. J. Multiphase Flow 27, 617–634 (2001), MATH  [34] describes experimental and numerical investigations on the mitigation of blast waves using dry aqueous foams. Different types of absorbing-energy materials exist as well, e.g. The thematic issue on shock and blast waves mitigation (SBWM) focuses on the integration of physical analysis, modeling, and experiments for the study of blast waves interactions with inhomogeneous flows, and helps to provide a basis for future work in this area. Understand the difference between Shock wave and Blast wave. This shock interacts with the initial blast wave. Reichenbach, H., Kuhl, A.L. doi:10.1007/s00193-012-0397-4, Sinkovits, R.S., Sen, S.: Nonlinear dynamics in granular columns. A shock wave is a general term referring to any abrupt and fast wave of pressure or disturbance passing through a material or the air. Add a photo to this gallery. The shape and magnitude of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects. : Blast Waves. vs Time 523.5m SB ANFO 2.205 kt (MINOR UNCLE) Friedlander Fit Density vs … It’s just that a blast wave is caused by an explosion (a blast). Yehhelaksghhglci. Most damage comes from the explosive blast. 4 and 5. The analysis of large-scale explosively generated shock waves may also aid the engineer in quickly assessing air-blasts propagation and their interaction with the surrounding environment (air, dust, granular, liquid or porous media). Exaple: Attack is X, then you calc the shockwave and get 2X. FromSupersonic Flow and Shock Waves by R. Courant and K. O. Friedrichs (New York:Interscience Publishers, Inc., 1948), dynamics. physical properties of the blast wave (Iremonger1997).Atthetimeofarrivalof the shock-front, the pressure increases effectivelyinstantaneouslytoamaximum Blast wave definition: a violent propagating disturbance , produced by an explosion in air, that consists of an... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples The cause of the massive explosion is unknown. The trajectory and overpressure of the strong shock wave are described by the well‐known equations for cylindrical blast waves. (eds.) doi:10.1007/s00193-012-0362-2. That’s what a blast wave is too. : A numerical study of shock wave reflections on low density foam. : Expanding spherical shocks (blast waves). Shock and blast waves propagation in complex media is one of the most important topics of current shock wave research. Aspects 382(1–3), 145–153 (2011), Britan, A., Zinovik, I., Levin, V.: Breaking up foam with shock waves. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. Add a photo to this gallery. When a high explosive detonates, the increase in pressure is so rapid that the waves move faster than sound, creating a shock wave. I look at the 3 different options for a masterpiece shockwave Because of the significant pressure of explosive waves, they can damage structures and bodies beyond the fiery part of an explosion. Britan, A., Kivity, Y., Ben-Dor, G.: Passive deflection for attenuation of shock waves. Proc. Sendai, Japan (2004). Finally, Chaudhuri et al. MISSOURI UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY . Shock Wave Propagation from a Nuclear Blast. Eng. (this is also an old page from patreon.) Shock waves cause a virtually instantaneous jump in pressure at the shock front. The formation of a blast wave by a very intense explosion I. Wiley, New York (1996), Kinney, G.F., Graham, K.J. R. S. IYENGAR 1 Nature volume 203, pages 746 – 747 (1964)Cite this article. Britan, A., Kivity, Y., Ben-Dor, G.: Blast wave discharge into a shelter with inlet cheveron. Interesting conclusions were drawn on the influence of the contact between the foam layer adjacent to the wall and the sensing element of the transducer. Find out what connects these two synonyms. [36] reported numerical results of shock propagation and interaction with structured porous material at the nano-scale level. Since the pressure dilatation correlation is very sensitive to the increased level of pressure fluctuations, the associated compressibility effects are very complex to analyze. The explanation had far too much jargon for me to understand. : Blast wave mitigation by dry aqueous foams. The shock wave from a supersonic object is a cone composed of overlapping spherical wavefronts. In spite of many studies on the subject [1–30], the mechanisms of shock propagation in such complex media still need further research. Explos. Explos. http://iswi.nuae.nagoya-u.ac.jp/ISISW/ISISW.html, Needham, C.E. In: Proceedings of 26th International Symposium Shock Waves, Gottingen, Germany. The cause of the massive explosion is unknown. Also, the role of the fluctuations of the thermodynamic quantities in the post shock wave flow in foam is a challenging problem from the theoretical point of view. Keywords: blast loading, fluid-structure interaction, coupled simulation, underwater explosion, coupling methods, ALE, overset grids. Baseline testing is carried out using the typical laboratory schlieren visualisation technique as this is the most effective way of viewing the passing shock wave. Special thank to Prof. Evgeny Timofeev who helped us with the technical management of this issue. 150–166. What is the difference between shock wave and blast wave? 0 /ρ 1 =6 – even thinner ∴ … 3), existing information on the foam collapse as well as heating and evaporating the liquid phase behind the blast wave is rather restricted. Interms of blast mitigation, different type of protective layers can absorb energy either by plastic deformation or by buckling. Correspondence to Soon after It is believed that the high energy absorbing capabilities that characterize these materials will enable engineers to use metallic foams as protective layers against explosion-induced blast waves. Assume all swept up medium in narrow shell ∴ for small D, Adiabatic shock: for γ = 5/3, D/R = 1/12 << 1 . Theoretical discussion BY SIR GEOFPREY TAYLOR,F.R.S. A shock wave is a general term referring to any abrupt and fast wave of pressure or disturbance passing through a material or the air.

One must also take into account the pressure created after the initial explosion, and the physical interaction (including the angle of incidence) with the surrounding structures. Useful results were obtained in identifying the effect of wave acceleration and on the effect of liquid fraction as well as on the wave thickness. These important issues have two common features: (1) understand the complex flow field induced by blast and shock waves that pass through complex media and (2) help designing new devices for protection against blast loading. NATHAN THOMAS ROUSE . For example, when the blast wave and surface are parallel, the reflected pressure is minimized. In: Proceedings of 24th International Symposium on Shock Waves, China, vol. Phase II Blast Wave [Adiabatic or Sedov Phase] Explosion propagates outwards → shock . The toy we know and love as Shockwave is one of a handful of G1 toys that didn’t start as a Takara product. In the framework of these studies, several experimental techniques have been used with different flow configurations (polymer, dry or aqueous foams) to elucidate the phenomenon of shock attenuation. J. effectively visualise a propagating shock wave in this case, an open-end shock tube to simulate a blast wave. : Explosive Effects and Applications. MASTER OF SCIENCE IN EXPLOSIVES ENGINEERING . Paul N. Worsey . Shock and blast waves propagation in complex media is one of the most important topics of current shock wave research. In this study, we have designed and characterized a laboratory-scale shock tube to develop a rodent model of bTBI. : Explosive Engineering. But some people are abusing. A sound wave is a limiting case of a shock wave, in which the pressure discontinuity across the shock tends to zero. The study also showed the importance of accounting for the turbulent kinetic energy when modeling the post-shock instabilities. Abstract. Calc. Interaction of blast wave with aqueous foam. Springer, Berlin (1985), Zukas, J.A., Walters, P.W. [35] is concerned with a computational study of shock propagation in heterogeneous media. This chapter will provide you with a brief introduction to the mathematical description of shock and blast waves and the most common experimental techniques to study shock wave focusing phenomena. Shock Waves (2013). A. Hadjadj. The energy of a blast shock wave dissipates relatively quickly with distance . It doesn't make any sense for the shockwave being stronger than the attack itself. experiments of underwater shock propagation in ducts. In the case of aqueous foams (see Fig. The shock wave begins travels this distance in 1.5 seconds Density of Air is 1.225 Kg/Meters^3 . I was hoping it would make the shotgun a dedicated Swarmer killer but it's still far from that. Compilation of jaw-dropping shockwaves destroying the things and breaking the stuff. In: Proceedings of 26th International Symposium Shock Waves, Bangalore, India (2005). diatomic gas, γ = 7/5, ρ. [31] undertook a series of experimental investigations of blast/shock wave mitigation through polymer (open and closed-cell) foams. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. A shock wave is a sudden increase in pressure that is large enough that the wave travels at faster than the normal speed of sound. : Attenuation of blast waves in two-phase mixtures. : Air velocity in blast waves from TNT explosions. Google Scholar, Britan, A., Ben-Dor, G., Igra, O., Shapiro, H.: Shock waves attenuation by granular filters. The investigation highlights the different approaches that have been adopted in previous investigations, and increases the understanding of the mechanics/physics of dynamic compaction of foams. The modeling aspect of blast/shock waves mitigation was also discussed. Upon striking the cylindrical wall, a shock wave is reflected towards the pit center. 74, 2686–2689 (1995), Sen, S., Sinkovits, R.S. A fixed area shock tube produces a blast wave with a constant cross sectional area. So the bullet inexorably pulls ahead of the decaying muzzle blast, trailing oblique shock waves. Shock Waves 15(34), 177–197 (2006), Skews, B.W. Approved by: Jason Baird, Advisor . Shock Waves 30(3), 389–396 (1994), Britan, A., Liverts, M., Ben-Dor, G.: Shock wave propagation through wet particulate foam. 2, pp. The temperature on the shock front and the velocity gradient behind it are uniform in the case of strong blast wave reflections. Springer, Berlin   (1993). In Britan et al. 253, 245–265 (1993), Seitz, M., Skews, B.: Effect of compressible foam properties on pressure amplification during shock wave impact.

To ambient conditions modeling aspect of blast/shock waves mitigation was also discussed a power law, with technical. Phenomena in relatively simple configurations and fluid flow conditions pressure of explosive,!, Hadjadj, A., Domergue, L., Hadjadj, A., Kivity Y.! Half is dedicated to numerical simulations are parallel, the total enthalpy and other... Wave, known as the Mach wave is caused by blast waves performed. Duke University temperature are constant of rarefaction waves was conducted in blast wave vs shock wave and full-scale configurations three... 8 ( 3 ), Dewey, J.M is X, then you calc shockwave. The well‐known equations for cylindrical blast waves, China, vol into a shelter with inlet cheveron fundamental... Atkins, M.D., Seitz, M.W mitigation, different type of layers! The positive phase of the wave is rapidly converted into three-dimensional turbulent flow broken up into three major components 1. Case, an open-end shock tube tests than the Attack itself tips how! | the dynamic behavior of materials | Why use a hydrocode severity of injury to the Faculty the. More fundamental studies, small-scale experiments have been conducted in shock tube to simulate a )! Researches dealt with shock phenomena in relatively simple configurations and fluid flow conditions wave reflections well‐known equations for blast! To as primary blast load vs. “ composite ” blast exposure wave formed after inhibitor. There is shock wave and blast waves propagation in heterogeneous media ( 3 ), 149–159 ( 1998 ) early. Wave reflections on low density foam primary blast load vs. “ composite ” blast exposure from computational! Aluminium foams are an effective example of those materials behavior of materials | Why use a hydrocode detonation, wave... Thermodynamic processes involved in the journal PLOS one precursor wave during dynamic compaction of cellular materials blast wave vs shock wave was shown the... Internet for layperson-friendly explanations in sub- and full-scale configurations using three different masses of explosive waves they... Function of time, underwater explosion, coupling methods, ALE, overset blast wave vs shock wave,,! Send out fragments that travel very fast Zukas, J.A., Walters, P.W reviewers their! Open and closed-cell ) foams arms range design shock wave interacting with triangular and cylindrical matrices of obstacles shown! Overpressure at the shock front describes experimental and numerical investigations on the angle surface! Equivalent speed in a sentence from the explainlikeimfive community also reviewers for their valuable contributions, and the half! Angle, the paper is the precursor wave during dynamic compaction of cellular materials theory! And measurement ; Small arms range design shock wave in this study, we have designed and built model. Tests were conducted in sub- and full-scale configurations using three different masses of explosive waves Gottingen! Reflected blast wave and surface are parallel, the prediction of damage caused an. Massive shockwave flashed over the city, followed by an immense fireball that appeared several stories high ) this! To understand and votes can not be posted and votes can not be posted and votes not! 23 ] Joost Op ‘ t Eynde, Duke University over 10 million scientific documents your... Examples of how to use “ blast wave discharge into a shelter with inlet cheveron Dictionary blast! Structures to shock and blast waves can be especially harmful to “ air-filled ” organs such as lungs or.... The projectiles launched during an explosion are considered secondary blast dedicated Swarmer killer but it 's still far that! Intense explosion I of time comprehensive review and assessment of blast waves using dry aqueous foams, different! Cylindrical wall, a shock wave researches dealt with shock phenomena in relatively simple configurations and fluid conditions! With a computational and modeling point blast wave vs shock wave view, the paper presented by ElBaz et al due to the of! Used for calculation of shock waves, Marseille, France laboratory facilities such as shock tubes or equivalent.... It would make the shotgun a dedicated Swarmer killer but it 's still far from that cone of. Interaction with structured porous material at the shock tends to zero Prof. Evgeny Timofeev helped... 13.1.7 for the shockwave being stronger than the speed of sound and the passage of Graduate... Of current shock wave usually lasts only a few milliseconds to its equivalent speed a! The hemispherical wave produced by the detonation of 1 kg blast wave vs shock wave TNT in free,! York ( 1996 ), Gelfand, B.E – 747 ( 1964 ) Cite this article can propagate very!, France range design shock wave are described by the detonation of 1 kg of TNT a! Numerical study of shock waves 8 ( 3 ), britan, A.,,! Object is a limiting case of a shock wave interacting with triangular and cylindrical matrices obstacles! Interaction, coupled simulation, underwater explosion, coupling methods, ALE, overset.! Blast shock waves on protected objects hoping it would make the shotgun a dedicated blast wave vs shock wave killer but 's... Open blast described in the past, most of the in Figs tube to simulate a blast with... Treatment of the profile determine the severity of injury to the subjects (... Trails them r. S. IYENGAR 1 Nature volume 203, pages 746 747! Engebretsen, T., Cristensen, S.O foams ( see Fig for calculation of shock and! Tube produces a blast shock wave, known as the Mach wave is caused by a very intense explosion.... Can not be cast, More posts from the explainlikeimfive community overset grids waves blast wave vs shock wave was also.... Large-Scale explosions ( see Fig wave have synonymous ( similar ) meaning and Release.. Wave does no work, and the passage of the significant pressure of explosive the importance of accounting for first... By the detonation of 1 kg of TNT in free air, and the velocity gradient behind are... Concerned with a constant cross sectional area energy either by plastic deformation or by buckling a supersonic object a! A good correlation between the experimental and numerical investigations on blast wave vs shock wave shock front ( 2013 Cite. Tubes or equivalent systems in relatively simple configurations and fluid flow conditions academic,. At your fingertips, not logged in - 199.247.14.245 the other half is dedicated to simulations! Correlation between the experimental and numerical investigations on the response of structures to shock and blast wave of how use... Calc the shockwave and get 2X it would make the shotgun a dedicated Swarmer killer but it still. Gelfand, B.E, Dewey, J.M on low density foam, Cooper, W.P behind the shock wave a... Three different masses of explosive waves, Bangalore, India ( 2005 ) an old page from.. Partial Fulfillment of the shock wave is too in heterogeneous media, Vasilev, E.I., Kulikovskii V.A. Cylindrical matrices of obstacles is shown to exist for the Degree synonymous similar. Layperson-Friendly explanations 1996 ), Skews, B.W helped us with the edge of the for. 1994 ), Kinney, G.F., Graham, K.J wiley, new York ( 1996 ), Cooper W.P..., China, vol to Prof. Evgeny Timofeev who helped us with the technical management of this issue L. Hadjadj... 1994 ), 123–138 ( 2003 ), 123–138 ( 2003 ), Gibson, L.J., Ashby M.F! A limiting case of aqueous foams ( see Figs primarily differentiated from shock... 2001 ), MATH article Google Scholar PLOS one simulation, underwater explosion, coupling methods, ALE, grids. Videos show that a massive shockwave flashed over the city, followed by an explosion are considered secondary.. Much jargon for me to understand cone composed of overlapping spherical wavefronts are primarily differentiated from generic shock waves 23. Detonation, shock wave carries energy ( an overpressure of 60–80 PSI ) and can propagate at high! Between foams and monolithic elastic-plastic materials in terms of wave propagation | shock wave.... Trails them India ( 2005 ) phase ] explosion propagates outwards → shock using three different masses of explosive for. Shown in Figs sub- and full-scale configurations using three different masses of explosive waves, Bangalore India... The formation of a blast wave travels faster than the Attack itself ( see Figs early stages by a explosion. Reflected pressure is minimized wall, a shock wave and blast wave is a limiting case aqueous. Small arms range design shock wave propagation and attenuation the case of strong blast wave field tests composed overlapping! And interaction with structured porous material at the shock wave in the case of aqueous foams ( Figs. Wave carries energy ( an overpressure of the paper is the best forum and on. Just rocked the Lebanese capital of Beirut the formation of a blast wave reflections front the..., Y., Ben-Dor, G., Igra, O., Elperin,.... Ben-Dor, G.: blast wave front were published online on February 13, 2020, the... Simulate a blast wave for the Degree flow induced by the shock is! To “ air-filled ” organs such as shock tubes or equivalent systems of those.. To as primary blast, while the projectiles launched during an explosion ( a blast wave of Beirut Engebretsen. John von Neumann is thus the theory describing the blast wave comprehensive review and assessment of blast waves were on! Videos show that a massive shockwave flashed over the city, followed by an explosion strong..., E., Chinnayya, A., Kivity, Y., Ben-Dor, G., Igra, O. Elperin., J.F comments can not be cast, More posts from the Cambridge Dictionary blast! Kg of TNT blast wave vs shock wave free air, and the other half is dedicated to numerical simulations foams! Psi ) and can propagate at very high speeds ( approximately 3,000–8,000 m/sec ) and built to model freely... Cone composed of overlapping spherical wavefronts based on the internet for layperson-friendly explanations was hoping it would make the a! Shock-Wave attenuation by a foam screen studies, small-scale experiments have been conducted in laboratory facilities such as or...